About a week has passed since I planted my carrot seeds. Although the package of the seeds says that it takes 12-25 days to grow, my enthusiasm got in the way of reality and made me really believe that there was a possibility that my carrots would grow much sooner. Unfortunately, that was not the case. All I see is soil with nothing sprouting. I am envious of some of my fellow classmates who chose to sod crop that would grow much faster. However, at the same time, I am happy with my choice to plant carrots and am very excited to see how they will turn out. The special thing is that I planted multicolor carrots, which makes me even more interested to see what different shades of carrots I will have ended up growing. The reason I find such a seemingly uninteresting aspect so fascinating is because when I planted the seeds, the seeds were identical in all aspects, so it will be so strange to see how each seed ends up producing a carrot that will not be identical to its neighbor.

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Grapes of Wrath Important Quotes by Theme

15 “now the going was easy, and all the legs worked, and the shell boosted along.”

18 “he pulled at the visor of his cap and creased it…could never look new again.”

35 “driver’s hand could not twitch because the monster that built the tractor, the monster that sent the tractor out, had somehow got into the driver’s hands, into his brain and muscle, had goggled him and muzzled him—goggled his mind, muzzled his speech, goggled his perception, muzzled his protest.”

36 “raping methodically, raping without passion.”

36 “had no connection with the bread. The land  bore under iron, and under iron gradually died; for it was not loved or hated, it had no prayers or curses.”

37 Owning property v. Property owning you

38 “Who can we shoot?…Maybe there’s nobody to shoot. Maybe the thing isn’t men at all. Maybe, like you said, the property’s doing it…And the driver was goggled and a rubber mask covered his nose and mouth.”

38 “fellow was telling me the bank gets orders from the East.”

48 “And dusk crept over the sky from the eastern horizon, and darkness crept over the land from the east.”

51 “fella gets use’ to a place, it’s hard to go, said casey. Fella gets use’ to a way a thinkin’, it’s hard to leave.”

55 “But when a bunch of men take an’ lock you up four years, it ought to have some meaning. Men is supposed to think things out. Here they put me in, an’ keep me an’ feed me for years. That ought to either make me so I won’t do her again or else punish me so I’ll be afraid to do her again, but if Herb or anybody else come for me, I’d do her again. Do her before I could figure her out.”

55 “you won’t have no respect for the guys that work the gover’ments.”


Chap 7

61 “Salesmen, neat, deadly, small intent eyes watching for weakness.”

61 “this ain’t gonna last forever”

62 “People are nice, mostly.”

62 “Flags, red and white, white and blue—all along the curb. Used Cars. Good Used Cars.”

63 “Brake rods, exhausts, piled like snakes”


Tom – 7 “clothes were new…cheap and new. Gray cap… visoir was still stiff…suit was of cheap gray hardcloth…blue chambray shirt was stiff and smooth with filler…coat was too big, the trousers too short, for he was a tall man…new tan shoes…put on the cap, and by pulling started the future ruin of the visor.”


Casey – 19 “long head, bony, tight of skin…eyeballs were heavy and protruding…lids were raw and red…cheeks were brown and shiny and hairless and his mouth full…nose, beaked and hard…no perspiration…on the tall pale forhead…abnormally high forhead, lined with delicate blue veins at the temples. Fully half of the face was above the eyes. His stiff gray hair…overalls and a blue shirt… and a spotted brown hat creased like a pork pie lay on the ground beside him.”


Ma – 74 ‘She wore a loose Mother Hubbard of gray cloth in which there had once been colored flowers, but the color was washed out now, so that the small flowered pattern was only a liggle lighter gray than the background…thin, steel-gray hair….strong, freckled arms…hands were chubby and delicate…full face was not soft; it was controlled, kindly. Her Hazel eyes…high calm and a superhuman understanding…citadel of the family, the strong place that could not be taken…imperturbability could be depended upon…healer…arbiter…if she swayed the family shook…the family will to function would be gone.”


Grampa – 77 “lean, ragged, quick old man…unbuttoned…bright eyes as evil as a frantic child’s eyes…lecherous…vicious and cruel and impatient, like a frantic child…”


Granma – 78 “as mean as her husband…shrill ferocious religiosity that was as lecherous and as savage”


Noah – 78 “wondering look on his face…never been angry…moved slowly, spoke seldom, and so slowly…little pride, no sexual urges…worked and slept in a curious rhythm…fond of his folks, but never showed it…left the impression of being missapen.”

Footnote: Pa thinks it’s his fault because he had pulled the baby out with his own hands…was ashamed… “listlessness in him toward things people wanted and needed”… hollow man.


81 “how we was holy when we was one thing, and mankin’ was holy when it was one thing. An’ it only got unholy when one miserable little fella got the bit in his teeth and run off his own way, kicking and dragging and fighting. Fella like that bust the holiness. But when they’re all workin’ together, not one fella for another fella, but one fella kind of harnessed to the whole shebang—that’s right, that’s holy. And then I got thinking I don’t even know what I mean by holy.”


Chapter 9

87 “there’s a premium goes with this pile of junk and the bay horses—so beautiful—a packet of bitterness to grow in your house and to flower, some day…maybe we can start again…but you can’t start. Only a baby can start…”

88 “how can we live without our lives? How will we know it’s us without our past? No. Leave it. Burn it.”

91 Tom – “Can’t go thinking when you’re gonna be out. You’d go nuts. You got to think about that day, and then the next day, about the ball game Saturday… just take every day”


Ruthie + Winfield—95  “Whereas Ruthie felt the might, the responsibility, and the dignity of her developing breasts, Winfield was kid-wild and calfish…”

Rose of Sharon 95 “pregnant and careful. Hair, braided…made an ash-blond crown…round soft face…voluptuous…slef-sufficient smile…full soft breasts and somach, hard hips…her whole body had become demure and serious.”


99 “The film of evening light made the red earth lucent, so that its dimensions were deepened, so that a stone, a post, a building had greater depth and more solidity than in the daytime light; and these objects were curiously more individual—a post was more essentially a post, set off from the earth it stood in and the field of corn it stood out against. And plants were individuals, not the mass of crop; and the ragged willow tree was itself, standing free of all other willow tree.s The earth contributed a light to the evening. The front of the gray, paintless house, facing the west, was luminous as the moon is. The gray dusy truck, in the yard before the door, stood out magically in this light, in the overdrawn perspective of a stereopticon”



Chapter 11

115 “He is all these, but he is much more, much more; and the land is so much more than its analysis.”

116 “houses were vacant, and a vacant house falls quickly apart.”


Chapter 12

Highway 66

119 “path of a people in flight”

121 “that’s what business is”


123 Al “had become the soul of the car”

124 “Aint you thinking what its gonna be like when we get there… No she said quickly No I aint. You cant do that. I can’t do that…but when it comes, it’ll only be one”

127 “I just don’t know what the country’s comin’ to.”

128 “the brave yellow paint that had tried to imitate the big company stations in town. But the paint couldn’t cover the old nail holes and the old cracks in the lumber, and the paint could not be renewed. The imitation was a failure and the owner had known it was a failure.”

129 “something worsen the devil got hold a the country.”

134 “Maybe they got crimes in California we don’t even know about.”

135 “everybody says words different”

139 “there’s no beholden in a time of dying”

140 “sometimes the law can’t be foller’d no way…not in decency, anyways”

140 “government’s got more interest in a dead man than a live one.”

141 “people needs—to help.”

141 “anyone can break down. It takes a man not to.”


Chapter 14

150 – results not causes

150 – “Having stepped forward, he may slip back, but only half a step, never the full step back…for every little beaten strike is proof that the step is being taken.”

151 “I am alone and I am bewildered…here is the node, you who hate change and fear revolution. Keep these two squatting men apart…this is the zygote. For here I lost my land is we lost our land…this is the beginning—from I to we…for the quality of owning freezes you forever into I, and cuts you off forever from the we.”

Chapter 15 Nickle a Piece Candy


169 Ma “The money we’d make wouldn’t do no good…All we got is the family unbroke”

187 “we all got to make a livin…yea only I wisht they was some way to make her thought takin her away from somebody else”

195 “a man with food fed a hungry man, and thus insured himself against hunger.”

207 “if he needs a million acres to make him feel rich, seems to me he needs ‘cause he feels awsful poor inside hisself, and if he’s poor in hisself, there ain’t no million acres gonna make him feel rich, an’ maybe he’s disappointed that nothin’ he can do’ll make him feel rich—not rich like mis’ Wilson was when she give her tent when Grampa died.”

221 “Okies got no sense and no feeling> they ain’t human…they don’[t know any better than what they got. Why worry?…that’s cause you know better. They don’t know any better”

224 “ Im sure nobody got a right to mess with a fella’s life. He got to do it all hisself. Help him, maybe, but not tell him what to do.”

225 “ A fella builds his own sins right up from the groun.”

227 “in the morning glow, and the sun came up behind them, and then—suddenly they saw the great valley below them…vineyards, the orchards, the great flat valley, green and beautiful, the trees set in rows, and the farm houses…morning sun, golden on the valley.”


Look through margin notes for 250 onwards…


261 “Well, sems to me a lone fella got more chance of work.” Contrast to family



Joad meets truck driver, talks about McAlester.

Meets Casey in the shade of a tree, walk to the broken house

Meet Muley, camp out, set off for Uncle John

Meet Pa + family

Muley comes back and says to tell his folks he’s coming though he’s not

Grampa refuses to leave, gets drugged.

Get gas at the failed imitation station.

Dog dodges helplessly and gets run over by a big car.

Meet the Wilsons (sairy + ) + Grampa sick, dies of stroke in wilson’s tent + Joads fix Wilson’s car and decide to travel together.

Con-rod bearing busts and Ma picks up the jack handle and makes her stand against the family breaking up. One eyed man (specter of a man) + they get the part + fix the car + stay at the place that costs ‘four bits’. At this place they learn that perhaps they won’t get good wages from someone who is going back east.

Border patrol in Arizona

Crossing the desert of California

Noah stays at the river.

Jehovites keep saying Granma gonna join her Jesus Ma kicks them out.

policeman comes into tent says who’s in here, calls okies.

Ditch Wilsons

Begin to cross desert

Granma dies + agricultural inspection + they get through.

Get to California

Leave granma body in coroners office + Hooverville

Knowles demands written contract from the contractor, arrested, Tom trips deputy + Casey takes blame

John drunk + Connie runs

Weedpatch camp (government camp) + Tom gets work + warning of riot at Saturday party + Sandry warns Roseasharn against dancing and all that crap + camp committee

Riot avoided at the dance

Have to leave camp b/c of money + flat tire + pick peaches + Meet Casey + strikers + Casey dies + Tom kills + Tom gets hit + go to cotton + Ruthie fight/tells + Rain + Damn fails b/c tree + rosasharon milk

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Soviet Union versus US AP US History DBQ

Conflict of Interest

Sometimes someone just rubs you the wrong way. There is nothing accidental about it though. All bad relationships, whether they are between people or countries, are the result of a fundamental difference between the two parties. In and of itself, a difference between two parties does not necessarily have to cause the relationship between those two parties to sour. If, however, a party cannot accept the other party’s difference, tensions and suspicions between the two parties will grow. Such was the case between the Soviet Union and the United States in the 1940’s. The source of the growing suspicions and tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States between the years of 1941 and 1949 was the difference in political and economic ideologies that the two countries subscribed to.


The Soviet Union saw America as a threat to its existence. This belief was solidified by the unfavorable position that the US continuously put the Soviet Union in attempting to follow Kennan’s Containment Doctrine (Doc D). This unfavorable position resulted in the growth of the Soviet Union’s bitterness toward the United States. A New York Times article on February 25th, 1948, stated that Czechoslovakia had been taken over by soviet backed Czech communists and had become a communist state (Doc F). The belief of the Soviet’s sole interest of imperial expansion became more popular upon the release of this article. In fact, in a Gallup Poll conducted in the United States in May of 1948, a majority of Americans said that America’s policy towards Russia was too soft. From August 1945 until May of 1948 more and more Americans began to distrust the Soviet Union (Doc H). America’s decision to keep Russia out of the loop of America’s development of the Atomic bomb, especially with the secrecy of the Manhattan project, only further increased the distrust between the two countries. Also, America’s demonstration of its successful test drop of the atomic bomb in Alamogordo New Mexico in the year of July 1945 showed the Soviet Union that America had successfully detonated a bomb and could do it again when necessary. In 1945, the battered Soviet Union was furious when its plea for a loan of six billion dollars was rejected by the United States. When the Soviet Union found out that a request by Britain in 1946 for a loan of $3.75 billion was accepted the tension only further grew. Stalin wanted a Soviet sphere of influence in eastern and central Europe in order to protect itself (Doc C). To many Americans this sphere of influence looked more like Soviet expansion. Clearly, the American desire to prevent Russian imperialism were at odds with each other.  In a cartoon in the London Evening Standard of March 1948, Stalin is shown planning his conquest for the rest of Europe (Doc G). Both countries had different ideal post-war visions which threatened the security of the other nation. As a result, both countries were mutually exclusive.

The American strategy was actually to put the Soviet Union in an unfavorable situation. America understood that the Soviet Union would see this as a threat and thus America seeked to make the soviet union as weak as possible. The Soviet Union believed that a Poland with free elections would mean having a democratic neighbor, which would ultimately put Poland out of the Soviet Union’s control.  Stalin believing that neighbors outside their control were threats to soviet existence proved to the Americans that the Soviet union was inherently expansionist. (Doc C). It is not too much of a stretch to believe that America perceived the Soviet Union as a threat to its existence. In fact in 1947, the Soviets cut of all land traffic to get westerners to evacuate West Berlin. In June 1948, the Soviet Union imposed the Berlin Blockade on West Berlin. This blockade made it such that the Soviets controlled all transport and shipments going into West Berlin. Nothing could be transported through the blockade without the permission of the Soviets. However, this was unsuccessful as Truman responded with the Berlin Airlift which brought the people of West Berlin food and supplies by the United States and Royal Air force aircraft. Because both the Soviet Union and America saw each other as a threat, both wished to make the other country less powerful (Doc A). The United States would prefer that both Germany and Russia were as weak as possible. Because America wanted the Soviet Union to be less powerful, America opened the second front so that Soviet Union would not have the power to determine the state of affairs after the war would be over (Doc B). America feared that if it did not create the second front before the Soviets did, then the people of the world would believe that the Soviet Union was responsible for ending the war. Because the United States did not open up a second front for so long, the Soviets lost millions of men, as by the end of world war two, America only lost 1 million, which very much added to the Soviet Union’s resentment of America. To completely put an end to the relationship between the US and Russia, on April 4th 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was signed. NATO’s purpose was “to keep the Russians out, the Germans down, and the Americans in” (Kennedy 851).

Initial mistrust and suspicion between the Soviet Union and the United States led the United states to put the Soviet Union in an unfavorable position, which caused Soviet bitterness to grow. The Soviet Union believed that their neighbors needed to be under their control in order to protect themselves, but the United States mistrust (perhaps justified) of the Soviet Union caused the US to believe that the Soviet Union had imperialistic tendencies and was inherently expansionary, as evidenced by Kennan’s advocation of the ‘Containment Doctrine’. Thus we see that the two countries acted in order to insure their national security, and in doing so escalated tensions and suspicions.


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Chesapeake versus New England Colonies DBQ AP US History

Of Motives and Circumstances

The British North American colonies were founded by groups of people who differed greatly in their reasons for leaving England. The Chesapeake region was colonized by those seeking economic opportunity whereas the New England region was colonized by those seeking either to escape religious persecution or establish religious freedom. One would hardly expect these two very different groups to establish ways of life that were exactly the same. Moreover, the different geographies of the colonies only made the path that the colonies took more diverse. By 1750, the New England and Chesapeake colonies exhibited pronounced economic, social and political diversity due to both the differing motives for colonization and the differing geographies of the regions.

Because the New England colonies and the Chesapeake colonies were founded by people with distinctly different motives, the two region’s social, economic, and political developments varied greatly. The New England colonists were interested in escaping religious persecution and seeking spiritual enlightenment. This meant that many of them left England in families (Doc F). In addition they placed a strong emphasis on education, as evidenced by the 1647 Massachusetts ‘Old Deluder Satan Law’ which mandated that if a town exceeded a certain threshold of families it must start a school. Interestingly enough, their own experience with religious persecution in England did not necessarily make them tolerant of other religions, as evidenced by the events that led up to the Half-Way Covenant and the Salem witch trials. Roger Williams, however, founded Rhode Island with the express purpose of religious tolerance (Doc A), and thus this colony was socially different than other New England colonies due to the different motives of its colonists. The Chesapeake colonies, however, were founded by colonists who were seeking to escape poverty and the primogeniture laws which limited the opportunities of non first-born children. This meant that the colonists were mostly comprised of single men, as opposed to the families of New England. In addition, because the Chesapeake colonists were in search of profit as opposed to spiritual enlightenment, the Chesapeake colonies did not have a strong emphasis on education. The motive of the colonists greatly differentiated the political structures of the colonies as well. Virginia was in fact founded by the Virginia Company which was chartered by James I. This caused the crown to play a much greater role in Virginia’s government from the very beginning (Doc D). Although Virginia attempted to have an assembly of elected representatives, which they called the House of Burgesses, it was largely ineffectual and James I revoked the charter of the Virginia Company in 1624. New England colonists, however, were escaping the crown to begin with and thus held town meetings in which all males with property had voice. The Virginian settlers at first dug for gold, but then they turned their work towards producing tobacco. While only the wealthy owned land in Virginia and set up such tobacco plantations, Massachusetts on the other hand, gave everyone a piece of planting ground in convenient proportions (Doc E).

The differing geographies of the New England and Chesapeake regions also played an important role in causing these regions to develop differently. The Chesapeake region was very favorable to growing Tobacco. Tobacco, however, was very land and labor intensive. The headright system gave fifty acres of land to anyone who paid a laborers ship fair. Many whites came to Virginia because they were promised freedom dues of both land and tobacco seeds to the indentured servant after several years of service. Because tobacco plantations took up huge swaths of land, there was no land left for the indentured servants to receive. This situation prompted Bacon’s Rebellion in 1675, which unintentionally created distrust towards the indentured servants (Doc C), that consequently prompted the West African slave trade in the Chesapeake, especially on Virginian Tobacco farms (Doc G). In 1670, blacks constituted only 7% of Chesapeake, which by 1750 jumped to 50%, accelerated by the promotion of natural black reproduction by slave owners. Because the geography of the Chesapeake region was favorable to tobacco, the Chesapeake colonies had high populations of slaves which led to slave codes and intergenerational slavery. The geography of New England, however, was not favorable to tobacco growing. New England’s economy was therefore based on subsistence farming and was thus more self-reliant, not requiring indentured servitude or slavery.

The different motives for the colonization of the New England and Chesapeake colonies caused these colonies to greatly differ. Because the New England colonies wanted religious freedom these colonies focused more on family and education. Being independent of the crown, they held town meetings as their form of government. On the other hand, the Chesapeake colonies were chartered by the crown and sought profit. The crown thus put into power non-elected officials. In addition, geography made the Chesapeake colonies dependent on tobacco which required a lot of laborers which they lacked. This caused indentured servitude and slavery in the Chesapeake colonies. These motives ultimately caused differences in educational system as well as social and political organization. Thus motives and geography account for all the difference between the colonies.




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AP US History Constitution Essay Article VI Section II

Article VI Section II: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

As the conflict of federal and state rule would never cease to exist, a mechanism was needed for its resolution. Thus Article VI Section 2 of the US Constitution was drafted to provide the Supremacy Clause which set the federal law and treaties made under federal power as the supreme law of the land, and granted federal primacy over state power, ultimately resolving state versus federal conflict.

The 1787 Philadelphia Convention, known as the Constitutional Convention, was called due to “state refusal to comply with requisitions made by the central government and state frustrations of national policy” (Birkby 1). Most delegates, including George Washington and Edmund Randolph, ended up agreeing with Madison’s ideas that the federal government must have more power than the states. The opponents argued on the grounds that they wished to preserve the “power and position of the states” (Birkby 1). Gunning Bedford pointed to an issue with the opponents’ stance: the National Legislature would have to sit to revise the laws of the states. John Lansing suggested another problem, stating that states will never reject their own laws. William Paterson proposed a plan which would ultimately give too much liberty to the states. Eventually, the plan proposed by Luther Martin became essentially our Article VI Section II. John Rutledge’s proposal to reword the constitution to include the “Constitution as supreme Law” (Birkby 1) was accepted.  Compromise and accommodation eased the ratification process, as small states in return for their acceptance got the legislative negative replaced with a judicial negative. The Supremacy clause was accepted and established (Birkby 1).

Article VI Section 2 applies to all Treaties made in the past under US authority. It is uncommon in jurisprudence for a law to be retroactive in this manner, and reflects a clear intent to protect such Federal Treaties from any state encroachment. State judges are bound by federal laws, to prevent a situation where a judge would rule first on the basis of state law and then refer the case to Federal Legislature to check for Federal compliance. It also states that any law that conflicts with Article VI Section 2 will be ignored in favor of the federal version.

Article VI, Section 2 of the Constitution has played a great role in Supreme Court decisions. In the case of Martin v. Hunter Lessee in 1816, Martin sued for recovery of his land that was confiscated during the American Revolution and given to Hunter due to Virginia Legislation that allowed for confiscation of British Loyalist property. While the Virginia Court upheld that the 1783 Treaty of Peace and Jay’s Treaty did not cover the dispute, the US Supreme Court overturned their decision “by a vote of 6 to 0” (Hall, Kermit, Ely, and Grossman 3) on the grounds that the treaties did indeed cover the dispute. The case was then handed back to the Virginia Court which claimed that the constitution did not give the US Supreme Court the authority to overturn state decisions. On a second appeal, the US Supreme Court upheld that it had federal jurisdiction over state courts involving federal law and therefore the confiscation of Martin’s land was unconstitutional (McBride 5). The case of McCulloch v. Maryland in 1819 was “the first supreme court case to give the court the ability to draw the line between states rights and the federal government” (Schultz 6). Maryland imposed a tax on all banks in that state that are not state run. McCulloch, a cashier at the Baltimore County Court, refused to pay tax on federal banknotes. The question at hand was whether the state could tax instruments of a federal institution. While the “Baltimore County Court refused to pay the tax”, an appeal was sent, and “the [US] Supreme court declared the Maryland tax unconstitutional and void” (Hall, Kermit, Ely, and Grossman 3). In 1821, a controversy was brought up in Cohens v. Virginia. Two Cohen brothers sold lottery tickets in Virginia, where there was a state act prohibiting non-authorized lottery ticket sale, even though the sale was authorized by an act of congress. The Cohen brothers were found guilty at the Norfolk court, and by Virginia Law could not appeal to a higher state court. The Cohen brothers appealed to the US Supreme Court anyways. Virginia claimed that “the Supreme Court had no jurisdiction in the case. Counsel, relying on the Eleventh Amendment to argue that a state cannot be sued without its consent, also contended that not a word in the Constitution goes to set up the federal judiciary above the state judiciary” (Cohens v. Virginia 2). US Chief Justice, John Marshall, stated that the subject of this case was fully discussed in Martin v. Hunter, and therefore the Supremacy clause of Article VI makes federal law “the supreme Law of the Land” (Kennedy and Cohen 4). The US Supreme Court ended up upholding the Cohens convictions because “Congress had not intended to permit the sale of lottery tickets in states where such a sale was illegal” (Cohens v. Virginia 2). The case of Gibbons v. Ogden in 1824 solved the conflict of commercial regulation in the state versus federal government. The US Supreme court ruled that the “states could not encroach on” the federal power to regulate international and interstate commerce (Schultz 6).

The Supremacy Clause has been able to hold our states together as one country, by applying federal laws and treaties uniformly across all states, and resolving any and all conflicts and ambiguities between what is federal and local, while at the same time permitting great local autonomy. Without such, our country would eventually fall apart into “islands” that would never be able to sustain and pursue common goals.


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Washington vs. Du Bois DBQ Outline

Thesis: During the period of 1877-1915 Booker T. Washington’s accommodation approach and W.E.B Dubois’s integrationist approach were both appropriate as each contributed to different aspects of blacks lives that the other person’s strategy was not able to attain.

Paragraph 1

Topic Sentence: Washington’s strategy to industrially educate blacks, although gradual, would enable blacks to climb out of poverty.

Washington helped found and open up job training schools, such as the Tuskegee Institute in 1881, for blacks using funds he mainly received from national political leaders such as President Roosevelt. These schools resulted in the steady increase of black literacy from 1890 to 1910, however the black literacy percentage was not able to even equal or surpass white literacy rates (Doc A).

In his Atlanta Compromise Address on September 18th 1895, Washington explains that by making blacks useful to the markets of the world, blacks could no longer be ostracized. He also states that although blacks and whites are different and therefore separate people, through unity can both benefit from each other and progress society (Doc C).

-Washington hoped that his schools would create skilled blacks perfect for this market. Washington believed that his school would result in the gradual step by step process starting with black respect, to a gain in social class for blacks, to eventually black gaining more rights. He believed that as long as blacks could have economic opportunity there was not need to cause a stir for black political rights.

Following Washington’s speech at the Atlanta Compromise in 1895, the number of black and white lynching’s decreased (Doc B) as people began to realize the usefulness and faithfulness of blacks to whites (Doc C).

-The decrease of lynching’s allowed blacks to focus on education rather than the deaths of their loved ones. Through this shift of mindset, blacks were able to attain an education which would ultimately allow them to make money and get out of poverty.

Based on an account by T. Thomas Fortune, the work of Washington’s education system is successful- preparing the pupils exactly for the skills they need in the world (Doc F). Although the school is preparing students for skilled work, it is not preparing them for anything else. In a sense, although needed and appropriate to the education of blacks, such an education is still not equal to whites and therefore by taking Washington’s approach blacks are ultimately depriving themselves of a true equal opportunity to have the same education of whites in materials besides being trained in a certain skill.

Paragraph 2

Topic Sentence: Dubois’s strategy of immediate integration of black and whites would lead to the establishment of black legal and political rights.

Dubois believed that Washington’s gradual approach to improve black lifestyle was not what the black community needed if they were to overcome racial tensions, so Dubois decided to take matters into his own hands. Dubois, in opposition to Washington’s strategies, helped to form the Niagara Movement in 1905, where Dubois decided to take a more radical approach to racial justice. Dubois demanded the following: immediate freedom of speech and the press, full black suffrage, which the Jim crow laws, specifically the Poll tax, literacy test and grandfather clause was denying to blacks, as well as the principle of human brotherhood to be recognized among whites toward blacks and the abandonment of caste distinctions based on race. These were the goals of the Niagara Movement which only be attained by not “acquiescing in wrong”, and instead “exposing the dishonesty and wrong” (Doc D) in public and taking action to make changes.

Immediate rights will not come in one moment, but it is important for blacks to “insist continuously” (Dubois, The Souls of Black Folk (1903)) for equal rights which whites already have (Doc E).

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Essay on Which Morals Are Indeed Moral? : The Conflicted Conscience in Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain explores the question of what constitutes good moral action. Twain illustrates how when good morals are contrasted with bad ones, the issue of moral action is simplified to the point of leaving no middle ground. Interestingly, in the novel, bad morals are often associated with society: Huck finds that he must make moral choices, which is problematic because society’s morals often clash with his own personal morals. Huck’s moral choices reveal that humans have an innate conscience that dictates moral action, or the right thing to do. In his article “On Human Intimacy in Huckleberry Finn,” Michael Lackey argues that the “conscience is [not] an impartial judge of moral values, but that it is a social construction, a receptacle of his culture’s values and ideology” ( 495). While Lackey says that the conscience is not an impartial judge of moral values, he is wrong about his assumption that the conscience is only societally based. In fact, through Huck’s moral choice-making, Twain reveals that there is an innate personal conscience that exists outside of social ideology. Twain illustrates Huck’s ethical conflict to reveal the absurdity that results from caving to societal pressure, ultimately suggesting that one must always follow his or her own personal beliefs rather than society’s collective conscience.

Twain’s satire of what it means to be civilized suggests the absurdity of society’s conscience. Twain sets up the novel by describing how the Widow took Huck in as her son and was to “sivilize [him].” Huck describes his experience with the Widow: “…it was rough living in the house all the time […] and so when I couldn’t stand it no longer I lit out […]. But Tom Sawyer he hunted me up and said [...] I might join [Tom’s band of robbers] if I would go to the widow and be respectable. So I went back” (Twain 1). Huck’s dissatisfaction with moral standards is thus emphasized very early in the novel. The moral standard is to be “sivilized” and that evidently is something Huck does not wish to be, which is why he “lite[s] out” in order to be free of societal law. However, this freedom is only temporary, as Tom tells Huck that Huck must stay with the Widow and be civilized if Huck is to join Tom’s band of robbers. In this manner, Twain uses satire to portray the ridiculousness of what it means to be civilized if robbers are considered civilized. Huck’s decision to stay at the Widow’s and simultaneously join the band of robbers is Huck’s attempt to satisfy both his absurd societal conscience and his personal conscience. Even so, as Huck begins new adventures he finds that such reconciliation of societal law and his personal beliefs is not realistic.

Huck’s rejection of the Widow’s teaching represents Huck’s personal conscience overcoming his societal conscience. Huck’s socially imposed conscience drives him to think that he is doing wrong by not turning Jim in for running away. One night on the river, Huck has trouble sleeping due to his moral conflict and begins to think that Miss Watson must have done something terrible to Jim: “that I could see her nigger go off right under my eyes and never say one single word. [...] Why she tried to learn me my book, she tried to learn me my manners, she tried to be good to me every way she knowed how. That’s what she done” (Twain 87). Huck questions why he allows Jim to be free if all Miss Watson, Jim’s owner, did for Huck was try to be “good” to him. The answer Huck finds to his actions is that Miss Watson “tried” to make him a civilized person which ultimately instilled society’s pro-slavery conscience in him. The problem is that what society defines as good is not actually morally good. Huck is able to recognize that this conscience is not his own, and is not morally correct by his definition of “good”. In this manner Huck realizes that he cannot stand following his society imposed conscience. In his paper on “Human Intimacy in Huckleberry Finn,” Lackey, believes that “the moment [Huck] rejects conscience and decides not to re-enslave Jim, [is the] point in the novel that [Huck] begins processing and articulating the transformation” of his own conscience “occurring within him” (Lackey 495). It is at this point, as Lackey states, Huck’s socially trapped mind transforms into one that is able to think for itself without any outer societal interferences. In addition, Lackey states that “Huck’s feelings for Jim outweigh his respect for the moral law, [as] he chooses human friendship” (Lackey 497). Lackey is partially right in Huck’s feeling for Jim outweighing his respect for moral law, but Lackey fails to specifically state that the moral law is society’s and not Huck’s. Also, Lackey believes that Huck abandons morality in general for friendship; however, it is Huck’s morality that guides him to pursue the interest of friendship over societal obligations.

After evaluating the consequences of following his personal beliefs, Huck finds that it would be morally correct to allow Jim to be free. Huck’s assessment that a free Jim is a threat to society suggests that Huck is able to overcome society’s influence by listening to his own personal views. As Jim speaks of trying to one day buy back his children and if that doesn’t work then to steal them, Huck finds that Jim “wouldn’t ever dared to talk such talk in his life before. It was according to the old saying, ‘Give a nigger an inch and he’ll take an ell.’ Thinks I, this is what comes of my not thinking. […] My conscience got to stirring me up hotter than ever […but then] I just felt sick” (Twain 88). The conscience being referred to here is the societal conscience, not Huck’s personal belief based one. And it is this societal conscience that “stirs” Huck so much and almost gets him to think that he is “not thinking” rationally, when in reality, he is. Also, “giving a nigger an inch” is exactly what Huck’s personal beliefs tell him to do, because by allowing this to happen, Jim will be able to take the step to “take an ell” and therefore gain freedom from slavery.

Huck’s investigation of whether to turn Jim in leads to Huck’s rejection of religion and by extension, societal morality. Huck’s decision to not report Jim to Miss Watson shows Huck’s disregard for slavery, and more generally society. Huck decides: “I would do the right thing and the clean thing, and go write to that nigger’s owner and tell where [Jim] was […I’d] got to decide forever, betwixt two things, and I knowed it. I studied a minute, sort of holding my breath, and then says to myself: ‘All right, then, I’ll go to hell’– and tore it up” (Twain 213-214). Even though Huck initially writes the letter due to his socially influenced conscience telling him to do so, he ultimately decides that by “tearing” it up he will “go to hell.” In Huck’s sense, “hell” is associated with his upbringing and therefore by “tearing” the letter, he disassociates himself from societal obligation of following its influence if he is to go to heaven. Thus, hell is a place that stands in opposition to society. It is ironic that Twain reverses the idea of Heaven and Hell, and by doing so, makes it seem that Hell is a place that people with good morals go to, rather than Heaven. Moreover, Huck is no longer interested in society’s values. It is in this very moment that Huck finally decides “betwixt the two things” of whether to follow his own morals or society’s, and chooses his own morals. Huck’s morals tell him that Jim should be free and not a slave. But Huck is not only interested in Jim’s freedom, but is also interested in his own freedom. In his article, “The Conscience of Huckleberry Finn”, Bennet says that Huck does not have the “will or strength” to do what society has made him think is the right thing to do (Bennett 126). Huck’s choices are not due to weakness in battling his socially imposed conscience, but rather due to his personal desires finally overcoming his societal obligations.
In addition, through the metaphor of the raft, Huck concludes that it is not worth following society’s collective conscience. While a part of society, Huck was obligated to be civilized. However, being civilized came at the price of Huck’s own freedom. After leaving Aunt Sally’s house, Huck, Tom, and Jim “struck out, easy and comfortable, for the island where [Huck’s] raft was; and [they] could hear them yelling and barking at each other all up and down the bank, till [Huck and companions were] so far way the sounds got dim and died out. And when [Huck and Jim] stepped onto the raft [Huck] says : ‘Now, old Jim, you’re a free man again’ ” (Twain 274). Tom’s association with society is what caused Huck in the first place to follow the influence of the societal conscience. The fact that Tom is left behind due to his shot in the arm reveals Huck’s full dissociation from society. Also, the river symbolizes Huck’s freedom where he does not need to comply with societal law. The same logic applies to Jim and his status as a slave. In this manner, the moment Huck and Jim step onto the raft, they become free, especially as the “sounds” of civilization fully “[die] out” and the river blocks out the “barking” of civilization. It is for this very reason of comfort in the isolation of Huck’s personal conscience that Huck has an emotional pull toward the river. Bennet explains that “unreasoned emotional pulls” overcome “general moral principles” (Bennett 127). It is unusual that Bennett calls the emotional pulls “unreasoned.” There is reason behind an emotional pull, and Bennet does not consider “unreasoned” to mean irrational. Huck’s emotion is based on his feeling rather than his societal conscience, and it is this very feeling that drives Huck to take action on his choice to free Jim. In his article, “Society and Conscience in Huckleberry Finn”, Levy states that
it is sometimes said that Huck acts out of simple affection for Jim; but affection does not determine a moral attitude. It is more reasonable to say that Huck defies “conscience” on the basis of an unformulated but very real sense of responsibility – to the notion that it is wrong, for example, to contribute to the enslavement of another human being. And this is a matter of conscience too, to which we may assume Huck’s experiences with Jim have contributed in a fundamental way. (Levy 389)

Levy is right to state that affection – a type of emotion – does not completely determine Huck’s moral attitude. It is Huck’s defying society’s conscience that allows his own personal beliefs to tell him that he has a responsibility to free Jim of enslavement. Such a sense of responsibility as well as the different experiences and adventures Huck goes through with Jim shape Huck’s personal conscience. It shapes Huck’s personal conscience in such a way that it allows Huck to abandon his societal conscience.
As Huck explores the meaning of the moral standard of being civilized, Twain reveals the hypocrisy surrounding it. Huck realizes that his definition of morality opposes that of society, and he tries to come to terms with his societal and personal conscious. Huck attempts to find a middle ground, but realizes that that is not possible and that he must choose between the two. After Huck explores the results of following societal law he sees that these situations always result in things that go against his inner personal beliefs. He then goes on to evaluate the results of his own personal beliefs. The consequences of these situations make it clear that societal law is not absolute and is in no way better than personal belief.


Bennett, Jonathan. “The Conscience of Huckleberry Finn.” Philosophy 49 (1974): 123-34. JSTOR. Web. 20 Apr. 2013.
This article provided a unique interpretation of the contrast between morality and sympathy in the novel. I found it interesting that the author, Jonathan Bennett, decided to use the term sympathy rather than personal morality, even though according to his definition of sympathy, it means the same thing as personal morality. In his article, Bennett seeks to prove that “sympathy wins over morality” (Bennett 126). Although I do agree with this statement, further down in his article, Bennett says that Huck does not have the “will or strength” (Bennett 126) to do what society has made him think is the right thing to do. I believe that the reason for Huck’s decisions for his actions are not because of Huck’s weakness to battle his socially imposed conscience, but rather because his personal desires can overcome his societal obligations. Another interesting point Bennett brings up is that “unreasoned emotional pulls” overcome “general moral principles” (Bennett 127). I find it unusual that Bennett calls the emotional pulls “unreasoned.” It is interesting to note what exactly Bennett means by “unreasoned”. Perhaps he means irrational since he emotionally tends to be tied to something beyond reason. In this manner, Huck’s choice is based on feeling rather than thought. I personally thought that there is always a reason for an emotional pull, and I thought in Huck’s case the reason for his pull was his desire to define who he really is, but Bennett believes otherwise.

Colwell, James L. “Huckleberries and Humans: On the Naming of Huckleberry Finn.” PMLA 86 (1971): 70-76. JSTOR. Web. 20 Apr. 2013.

Lackey, Michael. “Beyond Good and Evil: Huckleberry Finn on Human Intimacy.” Amerikastudien / American Studies 47 (2002): 491-501. JSTOR. Web. 20 Apr. 2013.
I found this article to be very useful because it gave me further insight into the theme of morality in the text. I learned that the author, Michael Lackey, concurs with my original thoughts on the subject of morality and how a person’s own morals overcome the morals of society. More specifically, Lackey believes that “the moment [Huck] rejects conscience and decides not to re-enslave Jim, [is the] point in the novel that [Huck] begins processing and articulating the transformation” of his own conscience “occurring within him” (Lackey 495). I think it is at this specific moment when Huck decides to not re-enslave Jim that we are able to see the transformation of Huck’s previously socially trapped mind into one that is free to think for itself. An interesting point that Lackey brings up in his article is that the “conscience is [not] an impartial judge of moral values, but that it is a social construction, a receptacle of his culture’s values and ideology” (Lackey 495). Many would say that a person’s conscience is not influenced by anything or anyone but the person who controls their own conscience. But both Lackey and I disagree with this standpoint. Lackey’s point is that Huck’s conscience embodies both his own and society’s values, but it is important to add what Lackey fails to say, and that is that that the problem is that the two consciences are in conflict with each other. Although I agree with many points that Lackey makes in his article, one that I do not completely agree with is when he says that “Huck’s feelings for Jim outweigh his respect for the moral law, [as] he chooses human friendship” (Lackey 497). Lackey is partially right that Huck’s feeling for Jim outweighs his respect for moral law, but either he is wrong or his idea is simply incomplete, because he does not specifically state that the moral law is society’s and not Huck’s. Although the statement is unclear, I later find out in his article that Lackey is indeed referring to moral law, and that Lackey believes that Huck abandons morality in general for friendship. It is here that I disagree with Lackey since I believe that morality is very important for Huck as it is the deciding factor in all his actions. In fact, it is Huck’s morality that guides him to pursue the interest of friendship over societal obligations.

Levy, Leo B. “Society and Conscience in Huckleberry Finn.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 18 (1964): 383-91. JSTOR. Web. 20 Apr. 2013.
I found this article interesting because it opened up a question that I will probably answer in my paper. Levy brings up the question of whether Huck’s decision to escape is an “isolating experience” or whether it is one in which Huck finds himself more “deeply rooted in society than he has ever known” (Levy 385). I believe that it is this isolating experience that allows Huck to come to terms with these “deep” societal “roots” and ultimately overcome them. Levy is incorrect to state that Huck is only able to overcome the racial barrier due to Huck and Jim’s “recognition and fulfillment of mutual needs” (Levy 385) which is what their relationship is built on. The reason that Huck is able to overcome the racial barrier is because he is able to follow his innate personal conscience rather than his societal one that in the first place set up the racial barrier. Levy is right to state that affection – a type of emotion – does not completely determine Huck’s moral attitude. It is Huck’s defying society’s conscience that allows his own personal beliefs to tell him that he has a responsibility to free Jim of enslavement. Such a sense of responsibility as well as the different experiences and adventures Huck goes through with Jim shape Huck’s personal conscience in such a way that it allows Huck to abandon his societal conscience. Levy writes about how Twain focuses on the “enormous, and crippling guilt that conscience can engender” (Levy 390). The conscience he is referring to is the bigger conscience which is composed both an innate personal conscience and a societal conscience. The “guilt” Levy refers to is actually the consequence that the “personal conscience” has on Huck.
Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. New York: Bantam Dell, 1981. Print.

Wexman, Virginia. “The Role of Structure in ‘Tom Sawyer’ and ‘Huckleberry Finn.’” American Literary Realism 6.1 (1973): 1-11. JSTOR. Web. 20 Apr. 2013.

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Garden Party Study Guide


The theme of Laura’s growth represents the clash between forming ones own mature mind versus following in the traditional mind of her peers and elders.

“Oh, how extraordinarily nice workmen were….” ——-Laura ends up approving these men and thus she learns to overlook class distinctions in the outside world.  However, she does realize that most don’t have her same mindset as she questions why she can’t have “friends like these”. She actually completely goes against class characteristics and ranks the workmen higher and better than her “silly” boys.

“He was dreaming. Never wake him up again. His head was sunk in the pillow, his eyes were closed; they were blind under the closed eyelids. He was given up to his dream. What did garden-parties and baskets and lace frocks matter to him? He was far from all those things. He was wonderful, beautiful.”

-Laura learns that when it comes to death, humanity disregards class distinctions. The death of a commoner is just as noble as the death of an upperclass man.

“Isn’t life,……..” Laura awakens her perception of reality as she ponders the idea that life after death is one without social class.

The theme of isolation represents the children being unexposed to the harsh reality of the outer world.

When Laura and Laurie were small children, they were confined to their parents estate as their parents refused to allow them to visit the “disgusting and sordid” settlement of common folk down the road. When they were older and eager to break out of their isolation, “Laura and Laurie on their prowls sometimes walked through” the settlement. “They came out with a shudder. But still one must go everywhere; one must see everything.”

-Even when they are grown up the few times they go through the real world only brings them closer to their parents. Is it only Laura who believes that class distinctions should be abolished as all humans are equal in her mind.

The temptation of the upper class makes Laura temporarily so involved in her class that she forgets about her previous thoughts on class distinctions.



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Araby Study Guide


As the bazaar closes down, he realizes that Mangan’s sister will fail his expectations as well, and that his desire for her is actually only a wish for change.

Story ends with negative epiphany. Instead of realizing that gifts do not matter and love is most important, the narrator simply gives up.

Upon his arrival at the bazaar, it slowly darkens– his relationship with Mangan’s sister will only remain a hopeful idea. Just like his fantasy over the bazaar, his love towards Magan’s sister was misguided.

The narrator’s failure at the bazaar suggests that contentedness is not part of the life of a Dubliner.

All the factors leading the narrator’s delay indicates that love is not part of the life of a Dubliner. In addition to this being shown when the Boy loses hope of love for Mangan’s sister, it is also shown as there is an absence of love with his uncle as he calls him boy instead of son.

The narrator and girl are nameless as though they are just a girl and boy nextdoor to eachother. This story suggests that all people experience frustrated desire for love and new experiences and do not always succeed in their endeavors.

“The former tenant of our house, a priest, had died in the back drawing-room. Air, musty from having been long enclosed, hung in all the rooms, and the waste room behind the kitchen was littered with old useless papers [. . .] He had been a very charitable priest; in his will he had left all his money to institutions and the furniture of his house to his sister. “

-the narrator notes that the priest was very heritable. The “musty air” and “usuells papers” suggest that the church is an outdated institution. As to the generosity of the priest, it seems strange why such a charitable priest would have the property and the money in the first place,

The working-class street- street which narrator lives on is a dead end. This suggests that him and his friends are not going anywhere.  They will grow up and live in the boring dreary Dublin.

…….”””..The depiction of the priest foreshadows what will happen to the narrator. His backyard garden, alludes to the Garden of Eden with an apple tree, however in his backyard the tree begins to decompose, reflecting the destruction of the priest’s idealism.

.The priest’s experience foreshadows the fall from innocence of the narrator from his adolescent idealism to the harsh reality of Dublin life.

Brown: Color associated with plainness and dreariness of Dublin.

Empty House: House at the end of North Richmond Street. It signifies that an empty future awaiting the boys playing on the street.

Florin: In the late nineteenth century, the coin had Queen Victoria engraved on one side. The florin was a reminder to the Irish that they were under British rule. This also contributes to the fact that the narrator doesn’t buy anything from the English woman.

It’s ironic that the narrator “sees the light” when the Araby bazaar darkens. This signifies his realization that his view of reality has been distorted.


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“She did not understand that there was no such thing as happiness, that the only victory lay in the far future, long after you were dead, that from the moment of declaring war on the Party it was better to think of yourself as a corpse. ‘We are the dead,’ he said.” (138).

“He had the sensation of stepping into the dampness of a grave, and it was not much better because he had always known that the grave was there and waiting for him.” (163).

“You will work for a while, you will be caught, you will confess, and then you will die[...] There is no possibility that any perceptible change will happen within our own lifetime. We are the dead.” (180)

“People simply disappeared, always during the night. Your name was removed from the registers, every record of everything you had ever done was wiped out, your one-time existence was denied and then forgotten. You were abolished, annihilated: vaporized was the usual word.” (19)



“Freedom is the freedom to say that two plus two make four. If that is granted, all else follows.” (83)

“Don’t you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to express it.(53)

-makes all other modes of thought impossible.


Government manipulates language so that they can manipulate the truth


“It’s the one thing they can’t do. They can make you say anything - anything – but they can’t make you believe it. They can’t get inside you.” (170)

“And if all others accepted the lie which the Party imposed—if all records told the same tale—then the lie passed into history and became truth. ‘Who controls the past’ ran the Party slogan, ‘controls the future: who controls the present controls the past.’” (35-36)

“a nation of warriors and fanatics, marching forward in perfect unity, all thinking the same thoughts and shouting the same slogans, perpetually working, fighting, triumphing, persecuting – three hundred million people all with the same face.” (76).

“The terrible thing that the Party had done was to persuade you that mere impulses, mere feelings, were of no account, while at the same time robbing you of all power over the material world.” (168).

“A hideous ecstasy of fear and vindictiveness, a desire to kill, to torture, to smash faces in with a sledgehammer, seemed to flow through the whole group of people like an electric current, turning one even against one’s will into a grimacing, screaming lunatic.”(14-15).

“Of course he chanted with the rest: it was impossible to do otherwise. To dissemble your feelings, control your face, to do what everyone else was doing, was an instinctive reaction.”(17).

“Nothing was your own except the few cubic centimeters inside your skull”(27)



“In the end the Party would announce that two and two made five, and you would have to believe it[…]Not merely the validity of experience, but the very existence of external reality was tacitly denied by their philosophy.”(82)

-The government’s use of psychological manipulation allows them to manipulate the past and the present. Because the external world exists in the mind and because the government can control the mind, is the government able to control the world.  The reality of an individual is destroyed by the “philosophy” of Big Brother.

And when memory failed and written records were falsified—when that happened, the claim of the Party to have improved the conditions of human life had got to be accepted, because there did not exist, and never again could exist, any standard against which it could be tested.”(95-96).

-If no one remembers life before the Revolution, then there is no one to speak of the failures of the party and the poverty and impoverish it imposed on its people.  The Party uses that which it has rewritten to make the Party shine in its glory though rewritten history books and records.

“And if all others accepted the lie which the Party imposed—if all records told the same tale—then the lie passed into history and became truth. ‘Who controls the past’ ran the Party slogan, ‘controls the future: who controls the present controls the past.’” (35-36)

“People simply disappeared, always during the night. Your name was removed from the registers, every record of everything you had ever done was wiped out, your one-time existence was denied and then forgotten. You were abolished, annihilated: vaporized was the usual word.” (19)




“They could lay bare in the utmost detail everything that you had done or said or thought; but the inner heart, whose workings were mysterious even to your self, remained impregnable.” (171).

“The terrible thing that the Party had done was to persuade you that mere impulses, mere feelings, were of no account, while at the same time robbing you of all power over the material world.” (168)

“Better than before, moreover, he realized why it was that he hated her. He hated here because she was young and pretty and sexless, because he wanted to go to bed with her and would never do so, because round her sweep supple waist, which seemed to ask you to encircle it with your arm, there was only the odious scarlet sash, aggressive symbol of chastity.” (15).

“Swine!Swine!Swine!” and suddenly she picked up a heavy Newspeak dictionary and flung it at the screen. It struck Goldstein’s nose and bounced off; the voice continued inexorably”(14).

-The party brainwashed and thus gains control over the people through making them hate who they chose as an enemy. Because emotion is banned other than the 2 minute hate period, the hate period acts as a time in which they can release their hate at the “enemy” instead of the Party.


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